Move to Australia on an Employer Sponsored Visa, known as the Temporary Skill Shortage Visa or TSS visa for short. Information updated for 2019.
2018 saw the official end of the 457-employer sponsored visa class. It’s replacement, the Temporary Skills Shortage Visa (TSS Visa Australia) has been designed to restrict the number of people converting from an employer sponsored visa into full Permanent Residency and Australian Citizenship while at the same time balancing the needs of Australian employers to be able to recruit International talent.
It’s still possible to convert from the TSS employer sponsored visa to but only in the circumstances outlined below.
Holders of the TSS Visa (Temporary Skills Shortage) can live and work in Australia while working full time for their sponsoring employer and may be joined by their Partner and children.
In certain circumstances holders may be eligible to convert to Australian Permanent Residency status. .
There are two parts to the new Australian TSS Visa:
If you have an occupation on the Short Term Skilled Occupations List (STSOL) you’ll be eligible for a TSS Visa lasting up to four years in total (the TSS visa for STSOL applicants is renewable once after two years so making four years).
If you have an occupation on the MLTSSL (Medium & Long Term Strategic Skills List) the initial visa is valid for up to four years and can convert into Australian permanent residency after three years.
Below you’ll find a combined list of all occupations currently eligible for the Temporary Skills Shortage Visa Australia.
Besides each occupation we’ve marked whether its on the MLTSSL or STSOL.
|Accommodation and Hospitality Managers||141999||STSOL|
|Airconditioning and Mechanical Services Plumber||334112||MLTSSL|
|Airconditioning and Refrigeration Mechanic||342111||MLTSSL|
|Aircraft Maintenance Engineer (Avionics)||323111||STSOL|
|Aircraft Maintenance Engineer (Mechanical)||323112||STSOL|
|Aircraft Maintenance Engineer (Structures)||323113||STSOL|
|Amusement Centre Manager||149111||Regional|
|Animal Attendants and Trainers nec||361199||STSOL|
|Architectural, Building and Surveying Technicians nec||312199||STSOL|
|Art Teacher (Private Tuition)||249211||STSOL|
|Arts Administrator or Manager||139911||STSOL|
|Beef Cattle Farmer||121312||STSOL|
|Boat Builder and Repairer||399111||MLTSSL|
|Book or Script Editor||212212||STSOL|
|Building and Engineering Technicians nec||312999||Regional|
|Business Machine Mechanic||342311||STSOL|
|Butcher or Smallgoods Maker||351211||STSOL|
|Cabler (Data and Telecommunications)||342411||STSOL|
|Cafe or Restaurant Manager||141111||STSOL|
|Camera Operator (Film, Television or Video)||399512||STSOL|
|Caravan Park and Camping Ground Manager||141211||Regional|
|Carpenter and Joiner||331211||MLTSSL|
|Chemical Plant Operator||399211||STSOL|
|Chief Executive or Managing Director||111111||MLTSSL|
|Chief Information Officer||135111||MLTSSL|
|Child Care Centre Manager||134111||MLTSSL|
|Cinema or Theatre Manager||149912||Regional|
|Civil Engineering Draftsperson||312211||MLTSSL|
|Civil Engineering Technician||312212||MLTSSL|
|Community Arts Worker||272611||Regional|
|Complementary Health Therapists nec||252299||STSOL|
|Computer Network and Systems Engineer||263111||MLTSSL|
|Conference and Event Organiser||149311||STSOL|
|Construction Project Manager||133111||MLTSSL|
|Corporate General Manager||111211||MLTSSL|
|Corporate Services Manager||132111||STSOL|
|Crop Farmers nec||121299||STSOL|
|Customer Service Manager||149212||STSOL|
|Dairy Cattle Farmer||121313||STSOL|
|Dance Teacher (Private Tuition)||249212||STSOL|
|Dancer or Choreographer||211112||STSOL|
|Diagnostic and Interventional Radiologist||253917||MLTSSL|
|Diesel Motor Mechanic||321212||MLTSSL|
|Director (Film, Television, Radio or Stage)||212312||STSOL|
|Disabilities Services Officer||411712||STSOL|
|Diving Instructor (Open Water)||452311||STSOL|
|Dog Handler or Trainer||361111||STSOL|
|Dressmaker or Tailor||393213||STSOL|
|Drug and Alcohol Counsellor||272112||STSOL|
|Early Childhood (Pre-primary School) Teacher||241111||MLTSSL|
|Earth Science Technician||311412||STSOL|
|Education Managers nec||134499||STSOL|
|Electrical Engineering Draftsperson||312311||MLTSSL|
|Electrical Engineering Technician||312312||MLTSSL|
|Electrician (Special Class)||341112||MLTSSL|
|Electronic Equipment Trades Worker||342313||MLTSSL|
|Electronic Instrument Trades Worker (General)||342314||MLTSSL|
|Electronic Instrument Trades Worker (Special Class)||342315||MLTSSL|
|Emergency Medicine Specialist||253912||MLTSSL|
|Emergency Service Worker||441211||Regional|
|Engineering Professionals nec||233999||MLTSSL|
|Environmental Health Officer||251311||Regional|
|Environmental Research Scientist||234313||MLTSSL|
|Environmental Scientists nec||234399||MLTSSL|
|Family and Marriage Counsellor||272113||STSOL|
|Family Support Worker||411713||STSOL|
|Film and Video Editor||212314||STSOL|
|Financial Brokers nec||222199||STSOL|
|Financial Dealers nec||222299||STSOL|
|Financial Institution Branch Manager||149914||Regional|
|Financial Investment Adviser||222311||STSOL|
|Financial Investment Manager||222312||STSOL|
|Financial Market Dealer||222211||STSOL|
|First Aid Trainer||451815||Regional|
|Fitness Centre Manager||149112||Regional|
|Fitter and Turner||323212||MLTSSL|
|Fruit or Nut Grower||121213||STSOL|
|Funeral Workers nec||451399||Regional|
|Gallery or Museum Curator||224212||STSOL|
|Gas or Petroleum Operator||399212||Regional|
|Grain, Oilseed or Pasture Grower||121214||STSOL|
|Gymnastics Coach or Instructor||452312||STSOL|
|Health and Welfare Services Managers nec||134299||STSOL|
|Health Diagnostic and Promotion Professionals nec||251999||STSOL|
|Health Information Manager||224213||STSOL|
|Health Promotion Officer||251911||STSOL|
|Horse Riding Coach or Instructor||452313||STSOL|
|Hotel or Motel Manager||141311||STSOL|
|Human Resource Adviser||223111||Regional|
|Human Resource Manager||132311||STSOL|
|ICT Account Manager||225211||STSOL|
|ICT Business Analyst||261111||MLTSSL|
|ICT Business Development Manager||225212||STSOL|
|ICT Customer Support Officer||313112||STSOL|
|ICT Managers nec||135199||STSOL|
|ICT Project Manager||135112||STSOL|
|ICT Quality Assurance Engineer||263211||STSOL|
|ICT Sales Representative||225213||STSOL|
|ICT Security Specialist||262112||MLTSSL|
|ICT Support and Test Engineers nec||263299||STSOL|
|ICT Support Engineer||263212||STSOL|
|ICT Support Technicians nec||313199||STSOL|
|ICT Systems Test Engineer||263213||STSOL|
|Information and Organisation Professionals nec||224999||STSOL|
|Insurance Loss Adjuster||599612||STSOL|
|Intellectual Property Lawyer||271214||Regional|
|Intensive Care Ambulance Paramedic||411112||STSOL|
|Intensive Care Specialist||253317||MLTSSL|
|Journalists and Other Writers nec||212499||STSOL|
|Judicial and Other Legal Professionals nec||271299||STSOL|
|Life Science Technician||311413||STSOL|
|Life Scientist (General)||234511||MLTSSL|
|Life Scientists nec||234599||MLTSSL|
|Livestock Farmers nec||121399||STSOL|
|Make Up Artist||399514||STSOL|
|Market Research Analyst||225112||Regional|
|Mechanical Engineering Draftsperson||312511||Regional|
|Mechanical Engineering Technician||312512||STSOL|
|Medical Diagnostic Radiographer||251211||MLTSSL|
|Medical Laboratory Scientist||234611||MLTSSL|
|Medical Laboratory Technician||311213||STSOL|
|Medical Practitioners nec||253999||MLTSSL|
|Medical Radiation Therapist||251212||MLTSSL|
|Medical Technicians nec||311299||STSOL|
|Metal Fitters and Machinists nec||323299||STSOL|
|Metal Machinist (First Class)||323214||MLTSSL|
|Metallurgical or Materials Technician||312912||STSOL|
|Middle School Teacher||241311||STSOL|
|Mining Engineer (excluding Petroleum)||233611||MLTSSL|
|Minister of Religion||272211||STSOL|
|Mixed Crop and Livestock Farmer||121411||STSOL|
|Mixed Crop Farmer||121216||STSOL|
|Mixed Livestock Farmer||121317||STSOL|
|Motor Mechanic (General)||321211||MLTSSL|
|Music Professionals nec||211299||STSOL|
|Music Teacher (Private Tuition)||249214||STSOL|
|Natural and Physical Science Professionals nec||234999||MLTSSL|
|Newspaper or Periodical Editor||212412||STSOL|
|Nuclear Medicine Technologist||251213||MLTSSL|
|Nursing Clinical Director||134212||MLTSSL|
|Obstetrician and Gynaecologist||253913||MLTSSL|
|Occupational Health and Safety Adviser||251312||STSOL|
|Operating Theatre Technician||311214||Regional|
|Organisation and Methods Analyst||224712||STSOL|
|Orthotist or Prosthetist||251912||MLTSSL|
|Other Spatial Scientist||232214||MLTSSL|
|Other Sports Coach or Instructor||452317||STSOL|
|Painting Trades Worker||332211||MLTSSL|
|Performing Arts Technicians nec||399599||STSOL|
|Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon||253517||MLTSSL|
|Policy and Planning Manager||132411||Regional|
|Post Office Manager||142115||Regional|
|Power Generation Plant Operator||399213||STSOL|
|Precision Instrument Maker and Repairer||323314||STSOL|
|Primary Health Organisation Manager||134213||MLTSSL|
|Primary Products Inspectors nec||311399||STSOL|
|Primary School Teacher||241213||STSOL|
|Private Tutors and Teachers nec||249299||STSOL|
|Production Manager (Forestry)||133511||STSOL|
|Production Manager (Manufacturing)||133512||STSOL|
|Production Manager (Mining)||133513||STSOL|
|Production or Plant Engineer||233513||MLTSSL|
|Program Director (Television or Radio)||212315||STSOL|
|Program or Project Administrator||511112||STSOL|
|Public Relations Manager||131114||Regional|
|Public Relations Professional||225311||STSOL|
|Quality Assurance Manager||139914||STSOL|
|Real Estate Representative||612115||Regional|
|Regional Education Manager||134412||Regional|
|Registered Nurse (Aged Care)||254412||MLTSSL|
|Registered Nurse (Child and Family Health)||254413||MLTSSL|
|Registered Nurse (Community Health)||254414||MLTSSL|
|Registered Nurse (Critical Care and Emergency)||254415||MLTSSL|
|Registered Nurse (Developmental Disability)||254416||MLTSSL|
|Registered Nurse (Disability and Rehabilitation)||254417||MLTSSL|
|Registered Nurse (Medical Practice)||254421||MLTSSL|
|Registered Nurse (Medical)||254418||MLTSSL|
|Registered Nurse (Mental Health)||254422||MLTSSL|
|Registered Nurse (Paediatrics)||254425||MLTSSL|
|Registered Nurse (Perioperative)||254423||MLTSSL|
|Registered Nurse (Surgical)||254424||MLTSSL|
|Registered Nurses nec||254499||MLTSSL|
|Renal Medicine Specialist||253322||MLTSSL|
|Research and Development Manager||132511||STSOL|
|Resident Medical Officer||253112||STSOL|
|Residential Care Officer||411715||STSOL|
|Sales and Marketing Manager||131112||STSOL|
|Science Technicians nec||311499||STSOL|
|Secondary School Teacher||241411||MLTSSL|
|Sheetmetal Trades Worker||322211||MLTSSL|
|Small Engine Mechanic||321214||MLTSSL|
|Social Professionals nec||272499||STSOL|
|Software and Applications Programmers nec||261399||MLTSSL|
|Special Education Teachers nec||241599||MLTSSL|
|Special Needs Teacher||241511||MLTSSL|
|Specialist Managers nec||139999||STSOL|
|Specialist Physician (General Medicine)||253311||MLTSSL|
|Specialist Physicians nec||253399||MLTSSL|
|Sports Centre Manager||149113||Regional|
|Sports Development Officer||452321||STSOL|
|Sugar Cane Grower||121217||STSOL|
|Supply and Distribution Manager||133611||STSOL|
|Surveying or Spatial Science Technician||312116||Regional|
|Swimming Coach or Instructor||452315||STSOL|
|Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages||249311||STSOL|
|Teacher of the Hearing Impaired||241512||MLTSSL|
|Teacher of the Sight Impaired||241513||MLTSSL|
|Technical Cable Jointer||342212||MLTSSL|
|Technical Sales Representatives nec||225499||STSOL|
|Telecommunications Field Engineer||313212||MLTSSL|
|Telecommunications Network Engineer||263312||MLTSSL|
|Telecommunications Network Planner||313213||MLTSSL|
|Telecommunications Technical Officer or Technologist||313214||MLTSSL|
|Textile, Clothing and Footwear Mechanic||323215||STSOL|
|Thoracic Medicine Specialist||253324||MLTSSL|
|Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioner||252214||STSOL|
|Transport Company Manager||149413||STSOL|
|Urban and Regional Planner||232611||STSOL|
|Vehicle Body Builder||324211||STSOL|
|Visual Arts and Crafts Professionals nec||211499||STSOL|
|Vocational Education Teacher||242211||Regional|
|Wall and Floor Tiler||333411||MLTSSL|
|Watch and Clock Maker and Repairer||323316||STSOL|
|Welder (First Class)||322313||MLTSSL|
|Welfare Centre Manager||134214||MLTSSL|
|Wood Machinists and Other Wood Trades Workers nec||394299||STSOL|
|Workplace Relations Adviser||223113||Regional|
TSS Visa Occupation Lists are reviewed frequently so they reflect accurately which occupations are in demand. There is never any guarantee that an occupation will stay on the list and changes frequently happen without notice.
A. Yes, the first stage in your TSS Visa journey is to secure an offer of employment and the role must fall under one of the categories in the list above.
Both the position description and the TSS visa applicant’s employment and education history must reflect the description provided by ANZSCO.
With this in mind it’s usual for an applicant to prove their experience and qualifications through the tried and tested Skills Assessment process. As a minimum, TSS Australia Visa applicants and required to possess a minimum of two years relevant work experience in their occupation.
Applicants for the UK, USA, Canada, Ireland and New Zealand are not required to sit and pass an English test for their Temporary Skills Shortage Visa application.
A. Unlike the Skilled Migration categories there is no upper age limit for the temporary skills shortage visa.
Will an employer pay for my relocation with a TSS Visa?
Each company and employment offer is different. For some technical and heavy weight roles full relocation is often provided.
Is there a medical for the Australian TSS Visa?
Yes, health and character criteria will need to be satisfied which means Police clearance certificates and medicals are required for ever applicant over 16 years of age.
1. Secure a job offer in Australia
2. The company must become an approved standard business sponsor
3. Employer nominates the position
4. Demonstrate Labor Market Testing (LMO)
5. Salary must be over AUD $53.900
6. Company must pay the skills fund training levy
7. Visa application
TSS Visa Standard business sponsorship (SBS)
To employ a Temporary Skills Shortage Visa holder an Australian business must first become an approved Standard Business Sponsor by demonstrating a ‘lawful and active’ operation in Australia. To meet these criteria a business will need to:
1. Hold a current ABN (Australian Business Number)
2. Registered their business name
3. Supply business accounts & activity statements
4. Demonstrate a commitment to training local citizens
5. Show compliance with workplace laws
After the TSS Visa standard business sponsorship application an employer is free to nominate a role within the business which must be filled by an International Candidate although to do this they must demonstrate they’ve tested the local labor market. This process is called Labor Market Testing (LMO) and means an employer must be able to evidence they’ve placed two advertisements within the past six months for a minimum period of 21 days.
The minimum salary for those on a Temporary Skills Shortage Visa must be above the Temporary Skilled Migration Income Threshold (TSMIT). This threshold is currently $53,900. Also, the remuneration must be within the going market rate for the role.
TSS Visa Training Levy
Employers must pay into a new Skilling Australians Fund (SAF) at nomination stage with the amounts payable set out below:
The contribution is calculated according to the number of years for which the visa is required and will be payable in full at time of nomination.
Small businesses with turnover less than AUD $10M will pay $1,200 per nomination per year for a Temporary Skills Shortage Visa. With larger businesses contributing $1,800 per international employee per year.
Not until this final stage does the application focus again on the individual who at this time must now demonstrate they have the right skills, experience and qualifications for the role usually proved through the third party Immigration Skills Assessment process. The final stage being health and character checks for the applicants.
How does an employer sponsor someone on a TSS visa?
An employer must become an ‘approved business sponsor’. The business must be operating lawfully and satisfy certain other criteria. Once a business is an approved sponsor this status usually lasts for five years and other applicants can be sponsored.
Work Experience Requirements for the TSS Visa Class
Two years full time work experience in the nominated occupation (or closely related field) undertaken within the last five years although part time experience may be considered.
TSS Visa Condition 8607
The TSS Visa Condition 8607 means that Temporary Skills Shortage Visa holders who wish to change occupations (not employer) must have a new nomination approved and a new visa granted before they start work in a new occupation.
What are TSS Visa caveats?
Some TSS visa occupations are subjected to extra caveats. For example, the Government may specify that an applicant be sponsored by a business that turned over at least $1 million in the 12 months prior to the nomination being lodged.
Other examples of visa caveats include applicants being paid a higher minimum salary than applies to most TSS visas, sponsors being located in specific postcodes, sponsors having a minimum number of full time employees
The Australian Government released many streamlining initiatives to coincide with the launch of the TSS Visa and its widely anticipated that the entire process could be completed in a two to three months. As the TSS visa is new for March 2018 we remain conservatively optimistic about the visa processing time.
Temporary Skills Shortage Visa to PR
If your occupation is on the MLTSSL for Australia then we can convert your TSS visa into PR after three years. However, if your occupation is on the STSOL list then it will not convert into PR at any stage.
Upon instruction by either employer or potential employee we assume responsibility for all aspects of the Temporary Skills Shortage Visa application on behalf of all stakeholders including business sponsorship, nomination and visa application. We work tirelessly to secure the right outcome for all parties often for a competitive fixed fee.
Emigrate to Australia with an Employer Sponsored Visa in 2019
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Great overview into what options are open.
My husband is looking to find his job in Australia, which happens to be currently on the MLTSSL. He is 47 so I believe the TSS route is the only option for him?
If successful we would like to move as a family and settle permanently in Australia, converting the TSS to a PR. However one of our 3 'children' is 18 and one other will be 18 in October 2019 (our youngest is 15). How possible is it that the whole process, from job offer (say by end March), could be finalised before October 2019, so 2 of the 3 could be deemed as our children. I'm asking this as I believe, as 18 year olds, they would need to make their own applications?
Alternatively would there be a route for them (as 18 year olds) via the 'Balance of Family'?
Hi Elizabeth and thank you for taking the time out to pose what is definitely quite a common scenario. We find that as clients get a little bit older Australian Immigration has a habit of throwing up some significant challenges.
The first point to consider is switching from the Employer Sponsored TSS Visa over to the Permanent Residency Stream, which is unfortunately a transition that's not currently possible.
thank you for the website help it's been great!
Can i ask - if over on a TSS short term - once it's ready to expire can you apply to for a TSS medium (if the role of on the list? )
so bascially can you go from a short term to a medium term?
If the occupation is on the STSOL and is then upgraded to the MLTSSL then your eligibility changes at the same time so you are correct in your thinking although it may be requiring of a new application at the time. It remains to be seen which occupations (if any) will jump from the Short Term to the MLTSSL in January 2019. We'll keep this page update.
And thank you for the kind words and if there's anything we can help with in the meantime simply take the free visa assessment and someone will be in touch.
Hello! Thanks a lot for the detailed information.I am applying for the TSS STSOL and the employer has already applied to become an approved Standard Business Sponsor and for nominating me. The first question is, how much time does it take for the (Sponsorship and Nomination) steps to be accomplished? and does the 3 months processing time that you have mentioned include processing times for these steps or it is the time required for the visa to be processed?
Thank you for your kind words. Depending on the role and employer you may be able to request priority processing which can be done in as little as one to four weeks. The timeframe quoted is what we see on average for the actual visa processing component and can take longer with published timeframes now being five to nine months.
Hello! If I want to apply for a TSS MLTSSL as a Clinical Psychologist 272311, is there a mandatory 2 year work experience required even with a positive skills assessment? If so, can you count clinical training that occurred after obtaining a Master while completing a Doctorate? (i.e. paid internship). If I am short on experience without being able to count training years, are there any waiver's or exceptions for this rule? I appreciate any insight you can offer. Your website has been quite helpful!
Dear Julie, thank you for your question:
All applicants are required to demonstrate that they have at least two years work experience in their nominated occupation or a closely related field.
If the applicant has not been working in precisely their nominated occupation, they must have been performing tasks at the same skill level in a related field.
The work experience should have been undertaken on a full-time basis in the last five years. Equivalent part-time work may also be considered if the applicants experience and skills are relevant and current, however it should be noted that causal employment will not count.
There is some flexibility in place to cater to certain industries to allow some periods of training or study to count towards this period of time for example:
As part of a Masters of PhD for relevant occupations in medicine and research or while studying through a formal arraignment (e.g. clinical/industry placement, internship or apprenticeship that is undertaken:
As part of a CRICOS registered course of study where it is relevant to the occupation (e.g for medical practitioners, experience gained through internships or the final year medical training, including periods of clinical placements; the internship components of the Professional Year Program)
Outside of a CRICOS registered course of study where undertaken at the skill level of the relevant occupation.
Since you already have a positive skills assessment prior to your clinical placement you would be undertaking the internship at the provable required level of equivalence.
Thank you for your kind comments
Hi, I read your article and I found it very complete so I would like to ask a question about the argument. I have applied on Nov 2017 for a 457 sub de facto visa and the visa is still in process. It would be possible to delete the request and apply for the TSS, and would be the processing faster than for the 457?
Hi Michelle and thank you for your very interesting question.
The TSS visa is still in its infancy having only been formally launched in March 2018. However, in our opinion you may fare better in terms of timeframe on the TSS although your employer may favor sticking with the original application given the increased financial requirements.
Hi, i want to know that whether MLTSSL can lead to PR after 3 years or not. Will it matter if the occupation is on the list or not after 3 years. What if the MLTSSL occupation is removed before expiry of 3 years, in that case will the candidate be still able to apply for PR or not.
An occupation on the MLTSSL can lead to Permanent Residency after three years. The impact on occupations being removed from the list during these three years remains to be seen.
I was previously in discussions with a firm re sponsorship until my role 'Property Manager' was removed from the list in July 2017. This is now live again, but restricted to 'Regional' areas, however, on the Home Affairs website it is listed as a 'TSS M/T*', does this mean it is considered a medium term role and potentially could lead to Permanent Residency?
Only occupations on the MLTSSL can qualify for Permanent Residency via the TSS Visa Stream. Property Manager is not eligible to convert to PR at this time.
Great website my friend used your services to emigrate to Australia recently and spoke very highly of you especially Alex.I have a question. Can I renew my Australia TSS visa at the end of the timeframe?
Hi Claire, its always nice to be recommended.
The answer depends on whether your occupation is on the MLTSSL or the STSOL.
If your TSS Visa Australia is granted on a STSOL occupation its valid for two years and extendable once more for a further period of two years. So four years in total.
For visas granted on a MLTSSL occupation code its valid initially for four years although these visas can convert into Permanent Residency after three years.
Great information on the new Temporary Skilled Shortage Visa.Can I include my wife and children on my TSS visa application?
Thank you Chester for your kind words and question.
Spouses/Partners and children can be included in a Temporary Skills Shortage visa application as dependents. These dependents can live, work and study in Australia with you.
I am 48 years of age. Can I still apply for this visa?
Dear Janice, the new Australian TSS Visa launched in March 2018 as a replacement for the old 457 visa has no age limit as long as all the other caveats above are satisfied. For more information take our free visa assessment to speak to one of our TSS Work Visa Experts
Thanks for the information. Great article very clear and I love your website.I am an advertising specialist. Can I switch a TSS Australia Visa over to permanent residency after three years?
Hi Melanie and thank you for the praise.
Unfortunately not. Your occupation code is on the Short Term Skilled Occupation List (STSOL) which doesn't have a pathway through to eventual Permanent Residency.